Capital city: Bucharest
Geographic position: in the south-east of Central Europe. Neighbours: Ukraine (N), the Republic of Moldova, Ukraine, and the Black Sea (E), Bulgaria (S), Serbia (SW), and Hungary (W).
Population: ca. 21,700,000. Outside the country’s borders there are large Romanian communities.
Official language: Romanian (a neo-Latin language of the Romance languages family)
Ethnic structure: Romanians – 89.5%; Hungarians – 6.5%; other ethnic groups – 4%
Religion: Eastern Orthodox – 86.7%; Roman-Catholic – 4.7%; Protestant – 3.2%, etc.
Administrative organization: 41 counties, plus Bucharest, the capital city (population ca. 2,200,000). There are 263 cities and towns, of which 80 municipalities, and 2,685 communes with over 13,285 villages.
Climate: temperate-continental, four seasons
Features: mountains (31% of area), hills and plateaus (33%), plains (36%), Danube Delta
The Romanian State:
- Romania is a sovereign and independent, unitary and indivisible nation state;
- Form of government: republic;
- Romania is a democratic and social state ruled by the law;
- The state is organized according to the principle of separation and balance of the powers – the Legislative, the Executive and the Judiciary – in the framework of constitutional democracy, guaranteed by political pluralism.
The President of Romania represents the Romanian state and guarantees the national independence, unity and territorial integrity of the country (5-year term).
The Legislative: The Parliament of Romania (4-year term) has two houses: the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies.
The Executive: The Government of Romania, headed by the Prime Minister, entrusted by the President of Romania with forming the Cabinet and with the Governance Program endorsed by Parliament by a vote of confidence.
The Judiciary: independence guaranteed by the Superior Council of the Magistracy; judges are irremovable.
Romania is a member of the UN (1955), of NATO (2004) and of the European Union (2007).